Manjioca: Uma Brasilian Feminista…

“I have come to believe over and over again that what is most important to me must be spoken, made verbal and shared, even at the risk of having it bruised or misunderstood.” ~Audre Lorde~

Sarah Palin on Alaska Native and Tribal Issues… September 17, 2008

Filed under: cultura indigena/indigenous culture,Racial Politics — manjioca @ 11:33 pm

Sarah Palin’s Record on
Alaska Native and Tribal Issues

1. Palin has attacked Alaska Native Subsistence Fishing

Perhaps no issue is of greater importance to Alaska Native peoples as the right to hunt and fish according to ancient customary and traditional practices, and to carry on the subsistence way of life for future generations.
Governor Sarah Palin has consistently opposed those rights.

Once in office, Governor Palin decided to continue litigation that seeks to overturn every subsistence fishing determination the federal government has ever made in Alaska. (State of Alaska v. Norton, 3:05-cv-0158-HRH (D. Ak).) In pressing this case, Palin decided against using the Attorney General (which usually handles State litigation) and instead continued contracting with Senator Ted Stevens’ brother-in-law’s law firm (Birch, Horton, Bittner & Cherot).

The goal of Palin’s law suit is to invalidate all the subsistence fishing regulations the federal government has issued to date to protect Native fishing, and to force the courts instead to take over the roll of setting subsistence regulations. Palin’s law suit seeks to diminish subsistence fishing rights in order to expand sport and commercial fishing.

In May 2007, the federal court rejected the State’s main challenge, holding that Congress in 1980 had expressly granted the U.S. Interior and Agriculture Departments the authority to regulate and protect Native and rural subsistence fishing activities in Alaska. (Decision entered May 15, 2007 (Dkt. No. 110).)
Notwithstanding this ruling, Palin continues to argue in the litigation that the federal subsistence protections are too broad, and should be narrowed to exclude vast areas from subsistence fishing, in favor of sport and commercial fishing. Palin opposes subsistence protections in marine waters, on many of the lands that Natives selected under their 1971 land claims settlement with the state and federal governments, and in many of the rivers where Alaska Natives customarily fish. (Alaska Complaint at 15-18.) Palin also opposes subsistence fishing protections on Alaska Native federal allotments that were deeded to individuals purposely to foster Native subsistence activities. All these issues are now pending before the federal district court.
2. Palin has attacked Alaska Native Subsistence Hunting

Palin has also sought to invalidate critical determinations the Federal Subsistence Board has made regarding customary and traditional uses of game, specifically to take hunting opportunities away from Native subsistence villagers and thereby enhance sport hunting.
Palin’s attack here on subsistence has focused on the Ahtna Indian people in Chistochina. Although the federal district court has rejected Palin’s challenge, she has carried on an appeal that was argued in August 2008. (State of Alaska v. Fleagle, No. 07-35723 (9th Cir.).)
In both hunting and fishing matters, Palin has continued uninterrupted the policies initiated by the former Governor Frank Murkowski Administration, challenging hunting and fishing protections that Native people depend upon for their subsistence way of life in order to enhance sport fishing and hunting opportunities. Palin’s lawsuits are a direct attack on the core way of life of Native Tribes in rural Alaska.

3. Palin has attacked Alaska Tribal Sovereignty

Governor Palin opposes Alaska tribal sovereignty.

Given past court rulings affirming the federally recognized tribal status of Alaska Native villages, Palin does not technically challenge that status. But Palin argues that Alaska Tribes have no authority to act as sovereigns, despite their recognition.

So extreme is Palin on tribal sovereignty issues that she has sought to block tribes from exercising any authority whatsoever even over the welfare of Native children,
adhering to a 2004 legal opinion issued by the former Murkowski Administration that no such jurisdiction exists (except when a state court transfers a matter to a tribal court).

Both the state courts and the federal courts have struck down Palin’s policy of refusing to recognize the sovereign authority of Alaska Tribes to address issues involving Alaska Native children. Native Village of Tanana v. State of Alaska, 3AN-04-12194 CI (judgment entered Aug. 26, 2008) (Ak. Super. Ct.); Native Kaltag Tribal Council v. DHHS, No. 3:06-cv-00211-TMB (D. Ak.), pending on appeal No 08-35343 (9th Cir.)). Nonetheless, Palin’s policy of refusing to recognize Alaska tribal sovereignty remains unchanged

4. Palin has attacked Alaska Native Languages

Palin has refused to accord proper respect to Alaska Native languages and voters by refusing to provide language assistance to Yup’ik speaking Alaska Native voters. As a result, Palin was just ordered by a special three-judge panel of federal judges to provide various forms of voter assistance to Yup’ik voters residing in southwest Alaska. Nick v. Bethel, No. 3:07-cv-0098-TMB (D. Ak.) (Order entered July 30, 2008). Citing years of State neglect, Palin was ordered to provide trained poll workers who are bilingual in English and Yup’ik; sample ballots in written Yup’ik; a written Yup’ik glossary ofelection terms; consultation with local Tribes to ensure the accuracy of Yup’ik translations; a Yup’ik language coordinator; and pre-election and post-election reports to the court to track the State’s efforts.

In sum, measured against some the rights that are most fundamental to Alaska Native Tribes – the subsistence way of life, tribal sovereignty and voting rights – Palin’s record is a failure.

 

An Open Letter to Barack Obama by Leonard Peltier

Filed under: cultura indigena/indigenous culture — manjioca @ 8:51 pm

August 28, 2008

An Open Letter to Barack Obama
Symbolism Alone Will Not Bring Change
By LEONARD PELTIER

I have watched with keen interest and renewed hope as your campaign has mobilized millions of Americans behind your message of changing a political system that serves a small economic elite at the expense of the peoples of the United States and the world. Your election as president of the United States, where slaves and Indians were long considered less than human under the law, will undoubtedly constitute a historic moment in race relations in the United States.

Yet symbolism alone will not bring about change. Our young people, black and Native alike, suffer from police brutality and racial profiling, underfunded schools, and discrimination in employment and housing. I sincerely hope your campaign will inspire some hope among our youth to struggle for a better future. I am, however, concerned that your recent statement on the Sean Bell verdict, in which the New York police officers who fired 50 shots at a young man on the eve of his wedding were acquitted of criminal charges, displays a rather myopic view of the law. Until the law is harnessed to protect the victims of state violence and racism, it will serve as an instrument of repression, just as the slave codes functioned to sustain and legitimize an inhuman institution.

As I can testify from experience, the legal institutions of this nation are far from racial and political neutrality. When judges align with the repressive actions and policies of the executive branch, injustice is rationalized and cloaked in judicial platitudes. As you may know, I have now served more than three decades of my life as a political prisoner of the federal government for a crime I did not commit. I have served more time than the maximum sentence under the guidelines under which I was sentenced, yet my parole is continually denied (on the rare occasions when I am afforded a hearing) because I refuse to falsely confess. Amnesty International, South African Bishop Desmond Tutu, the Dalai Lama of Tibet, my Guatemalan sister Rigoberta Menchu, and many of your friends and supporters have recognized me as a political prisoner and called for my immediate release. Millions of people around the world view me as a symbol of injustice against the indigenous peoples of this land,
and I have no doubt that I will go down in history as one of a long line of victims of U.S. government repression, along with Sacco and Vanzetti, the Haymarket Square martyrs, Eugene Debs, Bill Haywood, and others targeted by for their political beliefs. But neither I nor my people can afford to wait for history to rectify the crimes of the past.

As a member of the American Indian Movement, I came to the Pine Ridge Oglala reservation to defend the traditional people there from human rights violations carried out by tribal police and goon squads backed by the FBI and the highest offices of the federal government. Our symbolic occupation of Wounded Knee in 1973 inspired Indians across the Americas to struggle for their freedom and treaty rights, but it was also met by a fierce federal siege and a wave of violent repression on Pine Ridge. In 1974, AIM leader Russell Means campaigned for tribal chairman while being tried by the federal government for his role at Wounded Knee. Although Means was barred from the reservation by decree of the U.S.-client regime of Richard Wilson, he won the popular vote, only to be denied office by extensive vote fraud and control of the electoral mechanisms. Wilson’s goons proceeded to shoot up pro-Means villages such as Wanblee and terrorize traditional supporters throughout the reservation,
killing at least 60 people between 1973 and 1975.

It is long past time for a congressional investigation to examine the degree of federal complicity in the violent counterinsurgency that followed the occupation of Wounded Knee. The tragic shootout that led to the deaths of two FBI agents and one Native man also led not only to my false conviction, but also the termination of the Church Committee, which was investigating abuses by federal intelligence and law enforcement agents, before it could hold hearings on FBI infiltration of AIM. Despite decades of attempts by my attorneys to obtain government documents related to my case, the FBI continues to withhold thousands of documents that might tend to exonerate me or reveal compromising evidence of judicial collusion with the prosecution.

I truly believe the truth will set me free, but it will also signify a symbolic break from America’s undeclared war on indigenous peoples. I hope and pray that you possess the courage and integrity to seek out the truth and the wisdom to recognize the inherent right of all peoples to self-determination, as acknowledged by the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. While your statements on federal Indian policy sound promising, your vision of “one America” has an ominous ring for Native peoples struggling to define their own national visions. If freed from colonial constraints and external intervention, indigenous nations might well serve as functioning models of the freedom and democracy to which the United States aspires.

Yours in the struggle.

Until freedom is won,

Leonard Peltier
# 89637-132
U.S.P. Lewisburg,
P.O. Box 1000,
Lewisburg, PA USA 17837

 

Iemanja September 13, 2008

Filed under: cultura indigena/indigenous culture — manjioca @ 4:31 pm

Iemanja was a riverine Orixa in Africa, but became associated with the Sea after the “Middle Passage” (a euphamism for the terror of the slave trade).  She is the Orixa of the phototropic ocean (as opposed to Olokun, who is the Lord of the Deep).  She is also the ultimate mother figure and the “national” Orixa of Brazil.

According to the legends, Iemanja is the mother of most of the Orixa (Aganju and Exu being two of the exceptions).  Her best known son is Xango, The King, and there are many stories about how the children came to be, and Xango’s relationship with his father, Aganju (The Old King).

Iemanja loves children.  All children.  It doesn’t much matter to her who their parents are.  She will be a mother to them.  As Oxala is considered everyone’s “father” because he created humans, Iemanja is considered everyone’s “mother” because she is the essence of motherhood.

She carries with her all the serenity of the tropical seas, as well as the power of the Typhoon.  It is very difficult to anger her.  Please don’t.  She is “terrible in her wrath”.

Ileke

Seven light blue beads alternating with seven white beads, or crystal.

Colors and Day of the Week
Her most common colors are light blue and white, but clear crystal is often used.  We work with her on Saturday.

Iemanja’s Children
Iemanja children love children.  They may not have a large family but they will “mother” everyone.  They are intensely protective of their children but also highly tolerant of their childish pranks.  “Now, Now, dear.  Mustn’t set the cat on fire”.

Of all of the Orixa, Iemanja is the least likely to forgive an offense.  This may be due to her being so difficult to offend.  Her children share this characteristic.

Her children don’t just love the sea, they need it.  It is the source of their regenerative power, it seems.  When rituals are held by the sea, we keep a very close watch on the Iemanja children.  They want to be close to their mother, and may well get in over their heads – literally.

It is said that Iemanja children who maintain their obligations are completely impervious to negative magic.

Offerings
Watermelon and Coca-Cola.  She is fond of anything relating to the sea, such as shells or seawater.

 

Oxossi

Filed under: cultura indigena/indigenous culture — manjioca @ 6:16 am


dia da semana
quinta-feira

cores
verde

símbolos
arco e flecha (damatá), chicote (iruquerê)

elemento
terra

plantas
milho, jasmim-manga, carqueja, cróton.

animais
porco do mato

metal
latão

comida
axoxô, quibebe, milho cozido, tapioca, pamonha, canjica, frutas.

bebida
aluá, batida de mel

sincretismo
São Sebastião (20.1) ou São Jorge (23.4)

domínio
as matas, os animais silvestres

o que faz
protege contra perigos, castiga quem faz coisas erradas; protege os animais e plantas.

quem é
o Rei da Mata, o provedor de sustento, o vingador.

características
refinado, exigente, sensível, discreto, rancoroso

quizília
cabeca de bicho, (nos sacrifícios e alimentos) , ovo

saudação
Okê Arô !

onde recebe oferendas
na mata

riscos de saúde
problemas de olhos, boca, dores musculares, intestino

presentes prediletos
charutos, velas, mel, suas comidas e bebidas.

lendas:

(1)
Quando Oxum e Oxossi se conheceram, ele logo se apaixonou e quis casar com ela. Oxum concordou, mas impôs a condição de que ele fosse com ela para a mansão de seu pai disfarçado de mulher, para não ter a entrada impedida. Oxossi aceitou, sem perguntar se isso lhe traria problemas. Então Oxum o transformou em mulher e eles foram juntos para o palácio. Lá, Oxossi foi muito bem recebido, pois foi apresentado como uma amiga de Oxum; e assim os dois puderam viver juntos por muito tempo. Meses depois, Oxum não pôde mais esconder a gravidez; Oxalá descobriu a verdade e expulsou Oxossi do palácio. Por ter se transformado em mulher, Oxossi se tornou bissexual; e seu filho, Logunedê, também.

(2)
Oxossi era ajudante do irmão Ogum e carregava suas flechas. Certo dia, numa das caçadas, encontrou o irmão Ossain, que vivia na floresta e era um mago. Ossain enfeitiçou-o e Oxossi ficou servindo a ele por algum tempo. Quando o efeito do feitiço passou, Oxossi quis voltar para casa, mas a mãe Iemanjá não o aceitou. Então, Oxossi voltou para a mata e foi morar com Ossain, que lhe ensinou todos os mistério da floresta e de seus habitantes. Desde então, Oxossi se tornou um grande caçador, passando a garantir a alimentação da família e defendendo animais e plantas de pessoas que matam sem necessidade.

(3)
Odé era um grande caçador. Certo dia, ele saiu para caçar sem antes consultar o oráculo Ifá nem cumprir os ritos necessários. Depois de algum tempo andando na floresta, encontrou uma serpente: era Oxumaré em sua forma terrestre. A cobra falou que Odé não devia matá-la; mas ele não se importou, matou-a, cortou-a em pedaços e levou para casa, onde a cozinhou e comeu; depois foi dormir. No outro dia, sua esposa Oxum encontrou-o morto, com um rastro de cobra saindo de seu corpo e indo para a mata. Oxum tanto se lamentou e chorou, que Ifá o fez renascer como Orixá, com o nome de Oxossi.

(4)
Certa vez, no reino de Ifá, surgiu um pássaro enorme que, voando bem no meio da cidade, não deixava que o povo fizesse as festas do tempo da colheita. O rei convocou todos os arqueiros do reino, que usaram todas as suas flechas sem conseguir espantar o animal; e por isso foram executados. O último a comparecer tinha somente uma flecha mas sua mãe, com medo de que ele fosse condenado à morte, consultou Ifá e soube que o filho devia fazer uma oferenda aos deuses antes de tentar a sorte. O rapaz obedeceu e, com sua única flecha, matou o monstro. O rapaz foi muito aclamado pelo povo e passou a se chamar Oxossi, o grande caçador.